Nanocomposites for X-ray photodynamic therapy of deep tumors in oncology

From 23.04.2019 till 31.12.2021
Grant holder: Alexander Soldatov
Members: Ilia Pankin, Vera Butova, Mikhail Soldatov, Elena Kuchma, Oleg Polozhentsev

Oncological diseases in prevalence and mortality occupy one of the leading places among the socially significant pathologies. Many types of cancer tumors have resistance to one or another type of antitumor therapy, therefore the development of new therapies is an extremely important task, especially for the development of personalized medicine approaches. Photodynamic therapy (in the optical range of radiation) has recently become one of the most important methods of treating a number of types of cancer tumors with shallow locations. However, a sufficiently small effective depth of penetration of optical radiation into the tissue places a substantial frame on the list of types of tumors that can be treated with photodynamic therapy of the optical range. Some expansion of the radiation penetration depth can be achieved when moving to the infrared region of the spectrum, however, and in this case, the depth of penetration remains insufficient for many important types of tumors. In contrast to the optical range radiation, higher-energy x-ray and gamma photons easily penetrate into the deepest areas of the body. However, at present, there are practically no biocompatible photosensitizers approved for medical use for X-ray and gamma-based photodynamic therapy. In the course of this project, it is planned to conduct large-scale studies on the research фтв development of nanotechnologies capabilities to create biocompatible nanocomposites combining nanostructured x-ray phosphors that absorb x-rays and gamma rays and emit photons in the optical range with nanostructured photosensitizers for the optical range. The laws governing the accumulation of such nanocomposites in various tissues and tumors will be investigated depending on their composition and size of the resulting nanoparticles, to ensure a certain targeting in their delivery. An important element of the developed complex technique will be the use of selective local irradiation of tumors using, inter alia, stereostatic equipment (cyber-knife) for high-energy radiation therapy and simultaneous gamma (x-ray) photodynamic therapy. Within the framework of this project, it is planned to combine the most advanced techniques for creating and researching the features of bio-medical applications of a new class of active nanostructured materials, opening up access to the implementation of X-ray and gamma-photodynamic therapy (including using of a cyber-knife) that currently has no world analogues. For the synthesis of nanoparticles highly efficient techniques, including microwave hydrothermal synthesis will be used. To study the features of the spatial distribution (localization) of synthesized nanoparticles of composites in tissues and tumors, as well as to study the patterns of nanoparticles interaction with biological tissues, unique techniques of micro- and nano- X-ray spectral diagnostics at large-scale research facilities - synchrotron radiation facilities will be used. The complex use of the developed nanocomposites for X-ray and gamma- photodynamic therapy along with other types of therapeutic effects on deep tumor tissues (primarily with the method of radiation therapy) can provide a high antitumor effect while minimizing toxic and other complications. Thus, the basis will be laid for the development of new promising technologies for complex personalized antitumor treatment in oncology. The high scientific importance of solving the problem of developing a new complex technology for therapeutic treatment of deep tumor tissues using the nanocomposite materials for X-ray and gamma-photodynamic therapy determines the high relevance of this project.